Uracil-DNA glycosylase, also known as UNG or UDG, is a human gene though orthologs exist ubiquitously among prokaryotes and eukaryotes and even in some DNA viruses. The first uracil DNA-glycosylase was isolated from Escherichia coli.
The human gene encodes one of several uracil-DNA glycosylases. Alternative promoter usage and splicing of this gene leads to two different isoforms: the mitochondrial UNG1 and the nuclear UNG2. One important function of uracil-DNA glycosylases is to prevent mutagenesis by eliminating uracil from DNA molecules by cleaving the N-glycosylic bond and initiating the base-excision repair (BER) pathway. Uracil bases occur from cytosinedeamination or misincorporation of dUMP residues. After a mutation occurs, the mutagenic threat of uracil propagates through any subsequent DNA replication steps. Once unzipped, mismatched guanine and uracil pairs are separated, and DNA polymerase inserts complementary bases to form a guanine-cytosine (GC) pair in one daughter strand and an adenine-uracil (AU) pair in the other. Half of all progeny DNA derived from the mutated template inherit a shift from GC to AU at the mutation site. UDG excises uracil in both AU and GU pairs to prevent propagation of the base mismatch to downstream transcription and translation processes. With high efficiency and specificity, this glycosylase repairs more than 10,000 bases damaged daily in the human cell. Human cells express five to six types of DNA glycosylases, all of which share a common mechanism of base eversion and excision as a means of DNA repair.
100% Ver. is the fourth EP released by South Koreaboy bandMBLAQ. The album was released online on January 10, 2012. The online pre-orders started in January 10, 2012. It was recently revealed that 100% Ver. had over 40,000 pre-orders. The album consists of five new tracks, and the title track This Is War is a Dance Ballad with Orchestra Music. In March 21, the EP was re-released under the name "BLAQ% Ver.". The song "100%" was supposed to be the title track of the re-release, but the group will not promote the song to focus on solo activities.
On January 5, MBLAQ released their teaser of “This is War” on their official YouTube channel, J.Tune Camp. The video reveals the 5 members in their ensemble scene, and some small snippets of the full music video. The teaser ends with the members standing center stage with a string orchestra gathered on either side of them, shooting at the audience and finishes with a violent blood splatter that reveals their lead single's name, "전쟁이야 (This is War)". On the same day, the first concept photo was also released by J.Tune Camp. The directors jokingly stated that there was a particular member, Mir, who wanted to shave his hair bald, however they took fans' opinions in to consideration and only let the member go as far as a mohawk.
Beckett’s original choice for the lead – referred to only as “O” – was Charlie Chaplin, but his script never reached him. Both Beckett and the director Alan Schneider were interested in Zero Mostel and Jack MacGowran. However, the former was unavailable and the latter, who accepted at first, became unavailable due to his role in a "Hollywood epic." Beckett then suggested Buster Keaton. Schneider promptly flew to Los Angeles and persuaded Keaton to accept the role along with "a handsome fee for less than three weeks' work."James Karen, who was to have a small part in the film, also encouraged Schneider to contact Keaton.
The filmed version differs from Beckett's original script but with his approval since he was on set all the time, this being his only visit to the United States. The script printed in Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett (Faber and Faber, 1984) states:
In fluid dynamics, lubrication theory describes the flow of fluids (liquids or gases) in a geometry in which one dimension is significantly smaller than the others. An example is the flow above air hockey tables, where the thickness of the air layer beneath the puck is much smaller than the dimensions of the puck itself.
Internal flows are those where the fluid is fully bounded. Internal flow lubrication theory has many industrial applications because of its role in the design of fluid bearings. Here a key goal of lubrication theory is to determine the pressure distribution in the fluid volume, and hence the forces on the bearing components. The working fluid in this case is often termed a lubricant.
Free film lubrication theory is concerned with the case in which one of the surfaces containing the fluid is a free surface. In that case the position of the free surface is itself unknown, and one goal of lubrication theory is then to determine this. Surface tension may then be significant, or even dominant. Issues of wetting and dewetting then arise. For very thin films (thickness less than one micrometre), additional intermolecular forces, such as Van der Waals forces or disjoining forces, may become significant.